A multipronged attack on malaria
Validation of the protein kinase PfCLK3 as a multistage cross-species malarial drug target.
Targeting parasite's protein kinase
Malaria elimination goals are constantly eroded by the challenge of emerging drug and insecticide resistance. Alam et al. have taken established drug targets—CLK protein kinases involved in regulation of RNA splicing—and investigated how inhibition of the parasite's enzymes blocks completion of its complex life cycle. They identified an inhibitor of the parasite's CLK protein kinase that was 100-fold less active against the most closely related human protein kinase and effective at clearing rodent malaria parasites. Not only does this compound halt the development of sexual stages but it also limits transmission to the mosquito vector of the parasite, a key requirement for malaria drugs.
Despite the positive effects of intervention strategies that include insecticide-impregnated bed nets and artemisinin-based drug therapies, malaria still kills nearly 500,000 people per year and infects more than 200 million individuals globally. This, together with the emerging resistance of the parasite to frontline antimalarials, means that there is an urgent need for novel treatments that not only offer a cure for malaria but also prevent transmission. We show that by inhibiting an essential protein kinase that is a key regulator of RNA processing, we are able to kill the parasite in the blood and liver stages as well as prevent the development of the sexual-stage gametocytes, thereby blocking transmission to the mosquito.
Our group has previously published a list of 36 protein kinases that are essential for blood-stage survival of the most virulent form of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Here, we focused on one of these protein kinases from the P. falciparum CLK (cyclin-dependent–like kinase) family, PfCLK3, and reasoned that inhibition of this protein kinase by a small drug-like molecule would be effective at killing blood-stage parasites. We further hypothesized that because PfCLK3 plays a key role in RNA splicing, inhibition of this kinase would be effective at killing the parasite at all stages of the life cycle where RNA splicing is required. This would include blood, liver, and sexual stages.
By screening a focused library of nearly 30,000 compounds, we identified a probe molecule that selectively inhibited PfCLK3 and killed blood-stage P. falciparum. Using a combination of evolved resistance and chemogenetics, we established that our probe molecule had parasiticidal activity by inhibition of PfCLK3. We further showed that inhibition of PfCLK3 in parasites resulted in a reduction in more than 400 gene transcripts known to be essential for parasite survival. The finding that the vast majority of the genes down-regulated by PfCLK3 inhibition contained introns supported the notion that inhibition of PfCLK3 killed the malaria parasite by preventing the splicing of essential parasite genes. Because there is a high degree of homology between orthologs of CLK3 in other Plasmodium species, it might be expected that our probe molecule would both inhibit CLK3 contained in other malaria parasite species and have effective parasiticidal activity in these parasites. This was indeed found to be the case, with our molecule showing potent inhibition of CLK3 from P. vivax and P. berghei as well as killing the blood stages of P. berghei and P. knowlesi. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CLK3 inhibition also kills liver-stage P. berghei parasites and prevents P. berghei infection in mice. Finally, we showed that inhibition of PfCLK3 prevents the development of P. falciparum gametocytes, thereby blocking the infection of mosquitoes.
We found that inhibition of the essential malaria protein kinase CLK3 can kill multiple species of malaria parasites at the blood stage as well as killing liver-stage parasites and blocking transmission of the parasite to mosquitoes by preventing gametocyte development. In this way, we validate Plasmodium spp. CLK3 as a target that can offer prophylactic, curative, and transmission-blocking potential.
The requirement for next-generation antimalarials to be both curative and transmission-blocking necessitates the identification of previously undiscovered druggable molecular pathways. We identified a selective inhibitor of the Plasmodium falciparum protein kinase PfCLK3, which we used in combination with chemogenetics to validate PfCLK3 as a drug target acting at multiple parasite life stages. Consistent with a role for PfCLK3 in RNA splicing, inhibition resulted in the down-regulation of more than 400 essential parasite genes. Inhibition of PfCLK3 mediated rapid killing of asexual liver- and blood-stage P. falciparum and blockade of gametocyte development, thereby preventing transmission, and also showed parasiticidal activity against P. berghei and P. knowlesi Hence, our data establish PfCLK3 as a target for drugs, with the potential to offer a cure-to be prophylactic and transmission blocking in malaria.
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