Cardiovascular disease Target

What is Cardiovascular disease?

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and are the leading cause of death globally. They encompass various conditions such as coronary artery disease, which impacts the heart's blood supply, cerebrovascular disease, which affects brain blood flow and can lead to strokes, and hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure. Lifestyle factors like smoking, sedentary habits, unhealthy diets, elevated cholesterol, and genetics are significant risk contributors.

Exploring Therapeutic Strategies by Mechanism of Action (MOA)

Understanding the mechanisms of action (MOAs) behind different CVDs is crucial for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Here's how CVDs are categorized by their MOAs:

  • Atherosclerosis: Characterized by plaque buildup in arteries, this condition can cause artery narrowing and stiffness, leading to diseases like coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and carotid artery disease.

  • Thrombosis: Blood clots formed inside vessels can block circulation, potentially causing myocardial infarction, strokes, or venous thromboembolism.

  • Hypertension: High blood pressure places extra stress on the cardiovascular system and is a risk factor for other CVDs, including stroke and heart failure.

  • Heart Failure: An inability of the heart to pump adequately results in conditions like congestive heart failure and left- or right-sided heart failure.

  • Arrhythmias: Irregular heartbeats, whether too fast or too slow, are characteristic of diseases such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.

  • Cardiomyopathy: This disease, where the heart muscle is abnormal, affects the heart's ability to pump blood and includes types like dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive cardiomyopathy.

  • Valve Disorders: Dysfunctional heart valves can disrupt blood flow and lead to conditions such as aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation.

In therapeutic and diagnostic approaches, molecular targets or biomarkers related to these MOAs are often the focus. This approach enables the development of treatments and diagnostics that are tailored to the specific pathways involved in each CVD, leveraging knowledge of the unique UniProt IDs associated with these targets.

Detailed Insights into Therapeutic and Diagnostic Targets of MOA-Based Strategies

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) involve complex mechanisms, and therapeutic and diagnostic approaches often target specific molecular pathways or biomarkers associated with these mechanisms. Below is a detailed table of therapeutic and diagnostic targets for various mechanisms of action (MOA) in CVDs:

MOA Target/Biomarker Target ID Therapeutic Use Diagnostic Use
Atherosclerosis Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) GM-T94692 Statins (e.g., atorvastatin) lower LDL-C levels to reduce plaque buildup. LDL-C levels are a primary diagnostic marker for assessing CVD risk.
PCSK9 GM-T62206 PCSK9 inhibitors (e.g., evolocumab) lower LDL-C by preventing the degradation of LDL receptors.  
Thrombosis Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa GM-TA029 Antiplatelet drugs (e.g., clopidogrel) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (e.g., abciximab) prevent platelet aggregation. Platelet function tests; specific inhibitors used in acute settings.
Coagulation factor X GM-T84631 Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) like rivaroxaban inhibit factor Xa, reducing the risk of clot formation. Coagulation tests, including PT/INR, are used to monitor therapy.
Hypertension Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) GM-T82577 ACE inhibitors (e.g., lisinopril) lower blood pressure by preventing the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Blood pressure measurements; Renin and angiotensin levels.
Angiotensin II receptor GM-T74456 ARBs (e.g., losartan) block the action of angiotensin II, leading to vasodilation.  
Heart Failure Beta-adrenergic receptors GM-T52522 Beta-blockers (e.g., metoprolol) reduce heart rate and myocardial oxygen demand. Ejection fraction measured via echocardiography; BNP/NT-proBNP levels.
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) GM-T55302 Natriuretic peptide receptor agonists (e.g., sacubitril/valsartan) enhance diuresis and natriuresis. BNP and NT-proBNP are biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring HF.
Arrhythmias Potassium channels GM-T20251 Potassium channel blockers (e.g., amiodarone) used to treat various arrhythmias by affecting the electrical conduction of the heart. ECG for diagnosis; specific biomarkers for myocardial damage (troponin).
Sodium channels GM-MP1486 Sodium channel blockers (e.g., flecainide) used to manage arrhythmias by slowing heart rate.  
Cardiomyopathy Myosin heavy chain 7 GM-T07507 Investigational drugs targeting sarcomere proteins to improve heart muscle function. Genetic testing for mutations; Echocardiography for structural changes.
Troponin GM-T20186 Not directly targeted by therapies but used as a diagnostic marker for myocardial injury and cardiomyopathy. Troponin levels indicate myocardial injury.
Valve Disorders Natriuretic peptides GM-T55302 Not directly targeted by current therapies but serve as biomarkers for heart failure secondary to valve disorders. BNP/NT-proBNP levels can indicate cardiac stress due to valve disorders.


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