Introduction of Cre-loxP system

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Product list: Cre/loxP tools in AAV vector(AAV-Cre), adenoviral vector(Ad-Cre) and lentiviral vector(Lv-Cre)

Cat No. Pre-made Cre Viral vector Protomer Promoter Tissue Specificity Promoter Tissue
Specificity characteristics
GMV-AdCre-01Ad-CMV-CreAdenovirusCMV Total Total
GMV-AdCre-02Ad-CMV-Cre-GFPCMV Total Total

GeneMedi offer multiple serotypes of AAV-Cre loxP system for your option:
· AAV1-Cre
· AAV2-Cre
· AAV2 variant (Y444F)-Cre
· AAV2 variant (Y272F, Y444F, Y500F, Y730F)-Cre
· AAV2 variant (Y444F, Y730F, Y500F, Y272F, Y704F, Y252F)-Cre
· AAV2 variant(AAV2.7m8)-Cre
· AAV5-Cre
· AAV6-Cre
· AAV8-Cre
· AAV8-1m-Cre
· AAV8-2m-Cre
· AAV8 variant (Y733F, Y447F, Y275)-Cre
· AAV9-Cre
· AAV-Rh.10-Cre
· AAV-DJ-Cre
· AAV-DJ/8-Cre
· AAV-Retro (Retrograde)-Cre
· AAV9-PHP.B-Cre
· AAV9-PHP.A-Cre
· AAV9-PHP.eB-Cre
· AAV9-PHP.S-Cre
CMV Total Total
GMV-AAV9Cre-02AAV9-CMV-Cre-ZsGreen CMV Total Total
GMV-AAV9Cre-03AAV9-CAG-Cre CAG Total Total
GMV-AAV9Cre-04AAV9-CAG-Cre-ZsGreen CAG Total Total
GMV-AAV9Cre-05AAV9-Syn-Cre-EGFP synapsin (SYN) NeuroNeuron-specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-06AAV9-Syn-Cre synapsin (SYN) NeuroNeuron-specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-07AAV9-CaMKII-Cre-EGFP CaMKIINeuroForebrain glutamate neuron-specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-08AAV9-CaMKII-Cre CaMKIINeuroForebrain glutamate neuron-specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-09AAV9-GFAP-Cre-EGFP GFAPNeuroAstrocyte specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-10AAV9-GFAP-Cre GFAPNeuroAstrocyte specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-11AAV9-cTNT-Cre cTnTheartCardiomyocyte specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-12AAV9-cTNT-Cre-EGFP cTnTheartCardiomyocyte specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-13AAV9-TBG-Cre TBGliverHepatic specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-14AAV9-TBG-Cre-ZsGreen TBGliverHepatic specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-15AAV9-TIE-Cre TIEendothelialEndothelial-specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-16AAV9-cd68-Cre cd68NeuroMicroglia-specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-17AAV9-c-fos-Cre c-fosNeuroExcitatory neuron promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-18AAV9-mecp2-Cre mecp2NeuroShorter neuron-specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-19AAV9-MHCK7-Cre MHCK7muscleMuscle specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-20AAV9-Rpe65-Cre Rpe65retinaRetinal specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-21AAV9-sm22a-Cre sm22amuscleSmooth muscle specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-22AAV9-Spc5-12-Cre Spc5-12muscleMyocyte specific promoter
GMV-AAV9Cre-23AAV9-Ta1-Cre TalNeuroEarly neuron-specific promoter
GMV-LvCre-01Lv-CMV-CreLentivirusCMV Total Total
GMV-LvCre-02Lv-CMV-Cre-zsgreenCMV Total Total


Cre-loxP system is widely used in the field of biosciences, especially in the generation of genetically engineered mice (knockout or overexpression), enabling researchers to study the function of gene of interest (GOI). To date, numerous systems, derived from the basic Cre-loxP system, have been developed to precisely control gene expression at desired time or cells. Here, we briefly introduce Cre-loxP system, and give a summary about its applications, especially viral vectors-mediated Cre expression (such as AAV-Cre or Ad-Cre) for in vitro or in vivo studies.

Introduction of Cre-loxP system

As a powerful gene editing technology, Cre (cyclization recombinase) was first discovered in bacteriophage P1 to recognize and bind to the specific DNA sequences, named as loxP (locus of crossing over, x, P1) site and thus mediate site-specific rearrangement of target DNA sequences between two loxP sites (Fig. 1A), which can be located in the same or separate DNA fragments [1]. In this recombination process via Cre-loxP system, there were three rearrangement outcomes based on the orientation and location of the two loxP sites, which were shown in Fig. 1: ① gene deletion would happen, if the two loxP sites locate in the same DNA strand as well as the same orientation (Fig. 1B); ② gene inversion would happen, if the two loxP sites locate in the same DNA strand but in opposite orientations (Fig. 1C); ③ sequence translocation would happen, if the sites are in separate DNA molecules (Fig. 1D) [2, 3].

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Figure 1. Site-specific recombination via Cre-loxP system. (A) Close-up of Cre recombinase-mediated recombination between two 34 bp loxP sites, which consists of two 13 bp inverted and palindromic repeats (sequences in red or purple) and 8 bp core sequences (sequences in blue, “N” indicates the bases may vary from the canonical sequence of GCATACAT), which determines the orientation of the loxP site [4]. (B-D) Schematic of Cre recombinase mediated target gene deletion (B), inversion (C), or translocation (D).

To date, Cre-loxP system has been widely applied in the generation of gene knockout (KO) mice [5] (Fig. 2), especially the inducible tissue-specific gene KO mice [6]. First, loxP sites should be introduced into the introns to flank an essential exon of targeted DNA (floxed DNA) in murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) through homologous recombination, which will not affect the expression level of target gene. Then, mESCs need to be injected into a pseudopregnant female mouse blastocyst to develop into a whole mouse carrying the desired targeted mutation. After breeding with the mouse containing Cre gene, the heterozygous mice with target gene excision will be obtained (Fig. 2).

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Figure 2. Generation schematics of progeny mice with gene of interest (GOI) mutation via Cre-loxP technology. In principle, once one mouse carrying floxed DNA breeds with another mouse carrying Cre gene, their offspring will have both flanked DNA and Cre. Thus, Cre recombinase will excises floxed loci and inactivates GOI [7]. GOI, gene of interest.


The Cre-loxP system, especially inducible tissue-specific knockout and viral vector-mediated Cre expression, has been highly utilized in genetics and cell biology research. Nevertheless, it seems that Cre-loxP system will continue to be prevalent in current and future research studies. GeneMedi is proficient in viral vector development and offers kinds of viral vector-based Cre tools, we can provide the best services and products if required.


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