Antibiotics compound antibody & antigen(hapten) for immunoassay and food/feed safety rapid test

Besides their established use in treating bacterial infections, antibiotics have also been applied in animal feed in matters concerning growth promotion since their discovery for human health. This is especially useful in intensive animal feeding system where there is a likelihood of antibiotics residues in foods like raw milk, chicken, beef, pork, fish etc Customers are at higher risk of developing allergic reactions, toxicities, cancers, microbial resistance, alteration of the normal flora, immune response stimulation, and inhibition of starter culture due to AR contaminated farm foods. The developing countries have a higher risk in residues because most of them cannot afford the detection facilities and the controlling bodies for the drug residues in food in form of MRLs. To avoid/reduce the probability of antimicrobial residue in milk and to detect the residue to the standard limit level in all food items some options are possible based on chemical, microbiological and immunological tests. Currently, Genemedi has prepared primary antibodies and antigens for the detection of the MRL of antibiotics in raw milk, poultry, cattle, pork, fish, and so on, where the detection methods applicable include ELISA, Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), colloidal gold immunochromatographic test, Chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (TINIA), immunonephelometry, and POCT.

Antibiotics are chemical substances the are produced by bacteria and fungi and are effective in killing other microorganisms. Antibiotics have come to be used widely in the treatment of bacterial diseases, a ground that has been toughed greatly beginning in the early part of this 20th Century. In the clinical practice, there are several kinds of antibiotics that are frequently employed, and these are beta-lactams, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones which have different mechanisms of action based on the type of bacteria. There is this mechanism of action where many antibiotics interact with proteins situated in the bacterial cell such as beta-lactam antibiotics that gets fixed at PBPs that are involved in synthesis of peptidoglycan which makes the bacterial cell wall to break. Macrolide antibiotics become attached to the protein synthesis part of the bacteria known as the 50S ribosomal subunit thus killing the bacteria.

Other than being used as drugs in the treatment of diseases, antibiotics serve important functions in diagnosis. The level of resistance of bacteria to antibiotics can be tried out in the laboratory, in this manner the right antibiotic to be used in the treatment of the particular infection can be selected. This should be done because of a rising issue of antibiotic resistance, which is a scenario in which bacteria develop ways of countering the action of antibiotics. New approaches like anti-small molecule antibodies and small molecule competitive antigens are on the increase and could advance the application of antibiotics. The body’s immune system can generate antibodies that have the ability to combine with the drug, which in this case is antibiotics and facilitate their higher activity and lesser side effects. Small molecule competitive antigens function in a fashion of blocking the exhibit of the protein, the agonist molecule behaves structurally similar to the antibiotic; the small molecule competes with the bacterial protein to have binding sites thus not allowing the bacteria develop a resistance. In general, antibiotics are crucial in present day therapy and the introduction of other tools such as anti-small molecule antibodies and small molecule competitive antigens provides light to new strategies which may enhance the benefits of antibiotics and reduce the effect of antibiotic resistance.

Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for Veterinary Drugs in Foods.


Q1. What are antibiotics?
A1. Antibiotics are substances, which are substances made by living organisms like bacteria and yeasts that are capable of killing other living organisms especially bacteria.

Q2. Namely, what are some of the classes of antibiotics widely used?
A2. Some of the general classifications of antibiotics are as follows; beta-lactam antibiotics, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones.

Q3. What do antibiotic residues pose for the consumers or the general population?
A3. Due to its effects on allergic reactions, toxicity, carcinogenicity, selective encouragement of resistant bacteria, interference with the normal bacterial flora of man, immunological reaction, and outright inhibition of starter cultures, antibiotic residues are dangerous to the food industry.

Q4. What measures should be taken to reduce the emergence of antibiotic resistance?
A4. Strategies like anti-small-molecule antibodies and small-molecule competitive antigens are known to have improved antibiotics’ results as well as reduce the chances of antibiotic resistance.

Q5. What are the advantages that antibiotic has on animal agriculture?
A5. Antibiotics are used in animal husbandry as growth promoters and therapeutic agents, enhancing animals’ health and productivity, preventing the outbreak of diseases, and feeding the population. However, it is pertinent to note that the misuse of antibiotics in the animal’s rearing can hinder bacterial vulnerability and become a menace to human existence. Therefore, appropriate usage of antibiotics is a vital factor that should be observed in animal farming.

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