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Abstract

Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress for centuries. Infectious diseases are generally caused by microorganisms. The routes of them entry into host is mostly by the mouth, eyes, genital openings, nose, and the skin. Damage to tissues mainly results from the growth and metabolic processes of infectious agents intracellular or within body fluids, with the production and release of toxins or enzymes that interfere with the normal functions of organs and/or systems [1]. Advances in basic science research and development of molecular technology and diagnostics have enhanced understanding of disease etiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology, which provide basis for appropriate detection, prevention, and control measures as well as rational design of vaccine [2]. The diagnosis of infectious diseases is particularly critical for the prevention and control of the epidemic. Here we introduce the insights and detection methods of infectious disease, aiming to provide some helps for clinical diagnosis as well as epidemic prevention and control of infectious diseases.

Introduction of human infectious diseases caused by living pathogens

Infectious diseases arise upon contact with an infectious agent. Five major infectious agents have been identified: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans and parasites [3, 4]. Various factors can be identified that create opportunities for infectious agents to invade human hosts. These include global urbanization, increase in population density, poverty, social unrest, travel, land clearance, farming, hunting, keeping domestic pets, deforestation, climate change, and other human activities that destroy microbial habitat [5, 6]. Human engagement in activities that interfere with ecological and environmental conditions continues, thereby increasing the risk of contact with new pathogens. These pathogens are mostly transmitted though intermediate animal hosts such as rodents [7, 8], which gain increased contact with humans as a result of environmental and human behavioral factors. In most cases, a combination of risk factors accounts for infectious disease emergence and/or outbreak of epidemic. Here we list some past emerging infectious disease epidemics and probable factors for the outbreak in Table 1.

Table1. Some past infectious disease epidemics and possible outbreak factors
Year  Emerging disease  Pathogenic agent  Main probable factor Genemedi's diagnostic antibodies and antigens
2019 2019-novel-coronavirus pneumonia 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2 Dynamic balances and imbalances, within complex globally distributed ecosystems comprising humans, animals, pathogens, and the environment. May be because of hunting and feeding on infected wild animals (viverrids) Antigens: Nucleocapsid (N protein), Spike(S protein), RBD, S1+S2 ECD, Envelope (E protein), 3C-like Proteinase (Mpro), RdRP(Nsp12), etc.
Antibodies: N protein antibody (GMP-V-2019nCoV-NAb001~004) , Spike protein antibody (GMP-V-2019nCoV-SAb001~004)
1976-2020 Ebola haemorrhagic fever Filovirus Ebola virus Rainforest penetration by humans/close
contact with infected game (hunting) or
with host reservoirs (bats)/infected
biological products/nosocomial/needle
spread
Antibodies: Mouse anti-ebola virus (EV) monoclonal antibodies
1889, 1890,
1918, 1957
Pandemic Influenza Paramyxovirus influenza A Animal-human virus reassortment and
antigenic shift
Antibodies: Anti-Influenza A NP mouse monoclonal antibody
Anti-Influenza B NP mouse monoclonal antibody
Antigens: Recombinant Influenza A NP Protein (Flu A/B, His Tag)
Recombinant Influenza B NP Protein (Flu A/B, His Tag)
2003 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) SARS Coronavirus Hunting and feeding on infected wild
animals (viverrids)
1997 Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus Animal-animal influenza virus gene
reassortment; emergence of H5N1 avian
influenza, extensive chicken farming
Antibodies: Anti-Influenza A NP mouse monoclonal antibody
Anti-Influenza B NP mouse monoclonal antibody
Antigens: Recombinant Influenza A NP Protein (Flu A/B, His Tag)
Recombinant Influenza B NP Protein (Flu A/B, His Tag)
1996 Haemorrhagic colitis Escherichia coli O157:H7 Ingestion of contaminated food,
undercooked beef, and raw milk
1988 Herpes Herpes simplex virus 1/2(HSV-1/HSV-2) Indirect contact transmission, saliva, liquid from herpes, blood,mother to baby at birth. Antibodies: Mouse anti-herpes simplex virus monoclonal antibodies
Antigens: Recombinant HSV-1 antigen Protein
Recombinant HSV-2 antigen Protein
1987 Rift Valley fever (RVF) Bunyavirus RVF virus Dramatic increase in mosquito vector
breeding sites (by dam filling); weather
(rainfall) and cattle migration (guided by
artificial water holes)
Antibodies: Mouse Anti-Rift Valley Fever (RVF) Monoclonal Antibody
1987 Hepatitis C Hepatitis c virus (HCV) Blood, acupuncture, drug taking, etc Antibodies: Anti-HCV core antigen (HCcAg) monoclonal antibody
Antigens: Recombinant HCV NS3-NS4-NS5 fusion Protein (His Tag)
1983 Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever CCHF virus Ecological changes favouring increased
human exposure to ticks of sheep and
small wild animals
1981 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Sexual contact/exposure to blood or
tissues of an infected person
Antigens: Recombinant HIV-1 GP41 Protein (His Tag),
Recombinant HIV-2 GP36 Protein (His Tag)
1976 Malaria Plasmodium falciparum Human behaviour/rainfall and drainage
problems/mosquito breeding/neglect of
eradication policy, economics, and
growing interchange of populations
Antibodies: Mouse Anti-malaria monoclonal antibodies
1969 Lassa fever Arenavirus Lassa virus Hospital exposure to index case—rodent
exposure
1965 Hepatitis B Hepatitis b virus (HBV) sexual contact, sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment, mother to baby at birth. Antibodies: Mouse anti-Hepatitis b virus (HBV) monoclonal antibody
1959 Bolivian haemorrhagic fever (BHF) ArenavirusMachupo virus Population increase of rats gathering food
1958 Argentine haemorrhagic fever  ArenavirusJunin virus  Changes in agricultural practices of corn harvest (maize mechanization)
1953 Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) Dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 Increasing human population density in
cities in a way that favours vector
breeding sites (water storage)
1949 Cervical cancer Human papilloma virus (HPV) Contact infection, Sexual contact Antibodies: Mouse anti-Human papilloma virus (HPV) monoclonal antibody


Summary

Infectious diseases are a real public health threat, outbreaks can have serious social, political, and economic effects. A complex number of factors relating to human behavior and activities, pathogen evolution, poverty, and changes in the environment as well as dynamic human interactions with animals have been found to contribute to infectious disease emergence and transmission. Aggressive research is warranted to unravel important characteristics of pathogens necessary for diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine development. Here we describe some strategies for the diagnosis of human infectious diseases, hoping to be helpful for clinical diagnosis and epidemic prevention and control of infectious diseases. To date, multiple diagnostic techniques have been developed. Various diagnostic tools show both significances and limitations. Conventional approaches to quantify infective viral particles are labor-intensive, time-consuming, and often associated with poor reproducibility. Immunological tests generally provide quick results, however, is quite expensive due to the requirement of antigen-specific antibody. While RT-PCR may be able to provide results within a matter of hours, it is laborious, requires a skilled operator, and is sensitive to contamination. TEM-based quantification, although highly accurate in determining the shape and the total number of viral particles, often considered time-consuming, extremely expensive and impractical for high sample numbers. Moreover, TEM sample preparation is tedious, and the technique requires sophisticated instrument and a skilled operator. To alleviate these limitations, there is still a need to develop new cost-effective analytical methods that can allow users to quickly and easily determine virus concentrations and reduce constrictions coupled with current assays. Nevertheless, any such emerging methods must be carefully evaluated in terms of their efficiency, precision and linear range. The evaluation of each diagnostic technique and approval from the FDA are necessary before practical application.

Products list: paired diagnostics grade antibodies (monoclonal antibody, mab) and antigens for infectious disease rapid test kit

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is an acute systemic inflammatory syndrome characterized by fever and multiple organ dysfunction.

Genemedi produces core diagnostic ingredients for test of infectious diseases and related syndrome.

GeneMedi offers paired diagnostics grade antibodies (monoclonal antibody,mab)and antigens for infectious disease rapid test kit including infection of HIV/AIDS,Hepatitis C virus(HCV), Influenza A/B,Treponema Pallidum caused Syphilis,Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) Bacteria, Herpes simplex virus 1/2(HSV-1/HSV-2),Cytomegalovirus (CMV),rubella virus,toxoplasma gondii and so on.

All the antibodies of inflammation and CRS test are suitable for in functional ELISA, and other immunoassays in diagnostics. The antibody can act as a capture antibody and detection antibody.

Classification: Astrovirus (Aastrovirus) human adenovirus anthrax bacillus acute respiratory infectious diseases Jejunum campylobacter candida Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Cryptosporidium (Crypto) parvum EB virus ebola virus (EV) Food source pathogenic bacteria resistant FluA FluB H. pylori Hepatitis b virus (HBV) HCV HIV1 HIV2 Human papilloma virus (HPV) herpes simplex virus HSV-1 HSV-2 Listeria monocytogenes Mycobacterium tuberculosis malaria Norovirus (NV, also called Winter Vomiting Bug) Prion Rift Valley Fever (RVF) rotavirus rubella virus salmonella Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) TP(Treponema Pallidum) toxoplasma Vaccinia virus (cowpox virus) Vibrio cholerae West Nile virus (WNV)



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