Vaccines development for COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral pneumonia caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). First discovered in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province of China, COVID-19 has already broken out throughout the world and posed a great threat to the public health, especially in Europe and North America now. Additionally, person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 disease is reported to be extremely rapid [158-160]. To date, more than one million cases were infected with COVID-19 and over 55,000 deaths occurred. Therefore, it is really urgent and noteworthy to develop the vaccines specific to COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2.

Belonging to the Betacoronavirus genus family, SARS-CoV-2 is 60~200nm in diameter and encapsidates a large positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus (26-32kb) with many spikes on the virus capsid (Fig. 17A). The RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2 encodes several accessory proteins and structural proteins, such as nucleocapsid (N) protein, envelope (E) protein, membrane (M) protein, and spike (S) protein (Fig. 10B). Although the detailed mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been clearly illuminated, several studies demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 enters human cells via utilizing spike (S) protein to bind to the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) on the surface of target cell [161, 162].

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Figure 17. SARS-CoV-2 capsid structure and genome map. (A) Three-dimensional structure diagram of SARS-CoV-2. (B) Genome organization of SARS-CoV-2 [158]. ORF: open reading frame. E: envelope. M: membrane. N: nucleocapsid. HR1: heptad repeat 1. HR2: heptad repeat 2. SP: signal peptide. NTD: N-terminal domain. RBD: receptor binding domain. S: spike. S1: subunit 1. S2: subunit 2. TM: transmembrane domain. For more information, see: EMA guidance for COVID-19 vaccine

Since the genome sequences of SARS-CoV were discovered and reported (, a large number of pharmaceutical enterprises and research organizations are sparing all efforts to the vaccine development. Different companies utilize different targets and antigen epitopes. Some of the advances are listed in the following Table 10 (from WHO), and most of them focus on viral vector-based vaccines (replicating or non-replicating viral vector-based vaccines), recombinant protein (Spike), and nucleic acid-based vaccines. To date, two COVID-19 vaccines have entered Phase I clinical testing to assess the safety and potency of vaccines. One is mRNA-1273, was developed by Moderna Therapeutics, encoding a prefusion-stabilized form of Spike (S) protein [163] ( Another vaccine is recombinant protein of SARS-CoV-2 antigen, developed by Chinese Academy of Military Sciences, Institute of Military Medicine. It was predicted that these vaccines can be applied in clinics in a large scale as early as 2021 if they can successfully pass the clinical testing. Although there is a long way for theses vaccines to be applied for prevention and therapy of COVID-19, they indeed bring great hope and light to people all over the world.

Table 10. 52 candidate vaccines in clinical evaluation
COVID-19 Vaccine developer/manufacturer Vaccine platform Type of candidate vaccine Number of doses Timing of doses Route of Adminis-
Clinical Stage
Phase 1 Phase 1/2 Phase 2 Phase 3
Sinovac Inactivated Inactivated 2 0,14 days IM NCT04383574
Study Report
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm Inactivated Inactivated 2 0,21 days IM ChiCTR2000031809
Interim Report
Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm Inactivated Inactivated 2 0,21 days IM ChiCTR2000032459
Study Report
Bharat Biotech Inactivated Whole-Virion Inactivated 2 0, 28 days IM CTRI/2020/07/026300
University of Oxford/AstraZeneca Non-Replicating Viral Vector ChAdOx1-S 2 0,28 days IM PACTR202006922165132
Interim Report
Study Report
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adenovirus Type 5 Vector 1 IM ChiCTR2000030906
Study Report
Study Report
Gamaleya Research Institute Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adeno-based (rAd26-S+rAd5-S) 2 0,21 days IM NCT04436471
Study Report
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adenovirus Type 26 vector 1 2 0 0, 56 days IM NCT04436276
Novavax Protein Subunit Full length recombinant SARS CoV-2 glycoprotein nanoparticle vaccine adjuvanted with Matrix M 2 0,21 days IM NCT04368988
Study Report
(phase 2b)
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical/Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Protein Subunit Adjuvanted recombinant protein (RBD-Dimer) expressed in CHO cells 3 0, 28, 56 days IM NCT04445194
Moderna/NIAID RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA 2 0,28 days IM NCT04283461
Interim Report
Final Report
BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer RNA 3 LNP-mRNAs 2 0,21 days IM NCT04368728
Study Report
Study Report1
Study Report2
Medicago Inc. VLP Plant-derived VLP adjuvanted with AS03. 2 0, 21 days IM NCT04450004
Inovio Pharmaceuticals/ International Vaccine Institute DNA DNA plasmid vaccine with electroporation 2 0, 28 days ID NCT04447781
Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy/ Xiamen University Replicating Viral Vector Intranasal flu-based-RBD 1 IN

West China Hospital, Sichuan University Protein Subunit RBD (baculovirus production expressed in Sf9 cells) 2 or 3 0, 28 days and 0,14, 28 days IM
Curevac RNA mRNA 2 0, 28 days IM NCT04449276
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Inactivated Inactivated 2 0, 28 days IM NCT04412538
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan Inactivated Inactivated 2 0, 21 days IM NCT04530357
Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products Co., Ltd. Inactivated Inactivated 2 IM ChiCTR2000038804
Osaka University/ AnGes/ Takara Bio DNA DNA plasmid vaccine + Adjuvant 2 0, 14 days IM NCT04463472
Cadila Healthcare Limited DNA DNA plasmid vaccine 3 0, 28, 56 days ID CTRI/2020/07/026352
Genexine Consortium DNA DNA Vaccine (GX-19) 2 0, 28 days IM NCT04445389
Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc Protein Subunit RBD-based 2 0, 21 days IM NCT04473690
Sanofi Pasteur/GSK Protein Subunit S protein (baculovirus production) 2 0, 21 days IM NCT04537208
Biological E Ltd Protein Subunit Adjuvanted protein subunit (RBD) 2 0, 28 days IM CTRI/2020/11/029032
Israel Institute for Biological Research Replicating Viral Vector VSV-S 1 IM NCT04608305
Arcturus/Duke-NUS RNA mRNA IM NCT04480957
SpyBiotech/Serum Institute of India VLP RBD-HBsAg VLPs 2 0, 28 days IM ACTRN12620000817943
Symvivo DNA bacTRL-Spike 1 Oral NCT04334980
Providence Health & Services DNA electroporated S protein plasmid DNA vaccine with or without the combination of electroporated IL- 12p70 plasmid 2 0, 28 days ID NCT04627675
Codagenix/Serum Institute of India Live Attenuated Virus Codon deoptimized live attenuated vaccines 1 or 2 0 or 0,28 days IN NCT04619628
ImmunityBio, Inc. & NantKwest Inc. Non-Replicating Viral Vector hAd5 S+N 2nd Generation Human Adenovirus Type 5 Vector (hAd5) Spike (S) + Nucleocapsid (N) 2 0, 21 days SC NCT04591717
ReiThera/LEUKOCARE/Univercells Non-Replicating Viral Vector Replication defective Simian Adenovirus (GRAd) encoding S 1 IM NCT04528641
CanSino Biological Inc/Institute of Biotechnology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, PLA of China Non-Replicating Viral Vector Ad5-nCoV 2 0, 28 days IM/mucosal NCT04552366
Vaxart Non-Replicating Viral Vector Ad5 adjuvanted Oral Vaccine platform 2 0, 28 days Oral NCT04563702
Ludwig-Maximilians - University of Munich Non-Replicating Viral Vector MVA-SARS-2-S 2 0, 28 days IM NCT04569383
City of Hope, USA Replicating Viral Vector SARS-CoV-2 S and NP genes inserted into a sMVA vector 2 0, 28 days IM NCT04639466
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax Protein Subunit Native like Trimeric subunit Spike Protein vaccine 2 0, 21 days IM NCT04405908
Vaxine Pty Ltd/Medytox Protein Subunit Recombinant spike protein with Advax™ adjuvant 1 IM NCT04453852
University of Queensland/CSL/Seqirus Protein Subunit Molecular clamp stabilized Spike protein with MF59 adjuvant 2 0, 28 days IM ACTRN12620000674932p
Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation/NIAID/Dynavax Protein Subunit S-2P protein + CpG 1018 2 0, 28 days IM NCT04487210
Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, Cuba Protein Subunit rRBD produced in CHO-cell chemically conjugate to tetanus toxoid 2 0, 28 days IM IFV/COR/06
Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, Cuba Protein Subunit RBD + Adjuvant 2 0, 28 days IM IFV/COR/04
FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo Protein Subunit Peptide 2 0, 21 days IM NCT04527575
University Hospital Tuebingen Protein Subunit SARS-CoV-2 HLA-DR peptides 1 SC NCT04546841
COVAXX / United Biomedical Inc. Asia Protein Subunit Multitope peptide-based S1-RBD- protein vaccine 2 0, 28 days IM NCT04545749
Chinese Academy of Military Sciences Protein Subunit Subunit expressed in CHO cells 2 or 3 0, 14 days or 0,14, 28 days IM
Merck Sharp & Dohme/IAVI Replicating Viral Vector Replication-competent VSV delivering the SARS-CoV-2 Spike 1 IM NCT04569786
Institute Pasteur/Themis/Univ. of Pittsburg CVR/Merck Sharp & Dohme Replicating Viral Vector Measles-vector based 1 or 2 0, 28 days IM NCT04497298
Imperial College London RNA LNP-nCoVsaRNA 2 IM ISRCTN17072692
People's Liberation Army (PLA) Academy of Military Sciences/Walvax Biotech. RNA mRNA 2 0, 14 or 0, 28 days IM ChiCTR2000034112

Table 11. 162 candidate vaccines in preclinical evaluation
Platform Type of candidate vaccine Developer Coronavirus target Current stage of clinical evaluation/regulatory status- Coronavirus
Same platform for non-Coronavirus candidates
DNA DNA plasmids containing S-gene Biosun Pharmed SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA DNA plasmid vaccine Globe  Biotech Limited, Bangladesh SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA Plasmid DNA, nanostructured RBD National institute of Chemistry, Slovenia SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA DNA, engineered vaccine inserts compatible
with multiple delivery systems
DIOSynVax Ltd / University of Cambridge SARS-CoV-2 and
DNA DNA vaccine Ege University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA DNA plasmid vaccine RBD&N Scancell/University of Nottingham/ Nottingham Trent University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA DNA plasmid vaccine S,S1,S2,RBD &N National Research Centre, Egypt SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA DNA with electroporation Karolinska Institute / Cobra Biologics
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA DNA with electroporation Chula Vaccine Research Center SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA DNA Takis/Applied DNA Sciences/Evvivax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA Plasmid DNA, Needle-Free Delivery Immunomic Therapeutics, Inc./EpiVax, Inc./PharmaJet SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical SARS
DNA DNA vaccine BioNet Asia SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA msDNA vaccine Mediphage Bioceuticals/University of Waterloo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
DNA DNA vaccine Entos Pharmaceuticals SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Inactivated + Alum Shifa Pharmed SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Inactivated Milad Pharmaceutics Co. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical MMR, IPV
Inactivated Inactivated Zista Kian Azma Co. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical MMR, IPV
Inactivated Inactivated Kocak Farma Ilac ve Kimya San. A.S. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Egg-based, inactivated, whole chimeric Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein (Hexapro) +
CpG 1018
Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC; Vietnam) / Dynavax
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Egg-based, inactivated, whole chimeric Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein (Hexapro) +
CpG 1018
Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO; Thailand) / Dynavax / PATH SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Egg-based, inactivated, whole chimeric Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion-stabilized trimeric SARS-CoV-2 S protein (Hexapro) +
CpG 1018
Institute Butantan (Brazil) / Dynavax / PATH SARS-CoV-2 Pre-clinical
Inactivated Inactivated + alum KM Biologics SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical JE, Zika
Inactivated Inactivated Selcuk University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Inactivated Erciyes University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Inactivated whole virus National Research Centre, Egypt SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Inactivated SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated TBD Osaka University/ BIKEN/ NIBIOHN SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Inactivated + CpG 1018 Sinovac/Dynavax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Inactivated Inactivated + CpG 1018 Valneva/Dynavax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Live Attenuated Virus Codon deoptimized live attenuated vaccines Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University / Acıbadem Labmed Health Services
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Live Attenuated Virus Codon deoptimized live attenuated vaccines Indian Immunologicals Ltd/Griffith University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Non Replicating Viral Vector Ad 5 vector for intranasal administration University of Helsinki & University of Eastern Finland SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Non Replicating Viral Vector Adenovirus Type 5 Vector Globe  Biotech Limited, Bangladesh SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Sendai virus vector ID Pharma SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adenovirus-based Ankara University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adeno-associated virus vector (AAVCOVID) Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Massachusetts General Hospital/AveXis SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Non-Replicating Viral Vector MVA encoded VLP GeoVax/BravoVax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical LASV, EBOV, MARV, HIV
Non-replicating viral vector MVA-S encoded DZIF – German Center for Infection Research/IDT Biologika GmbH SARS-CoV2 Pre-clinical Many
Non-replicating viral vector MVA-S IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Spain SARS-CoV2 Pre-clinical
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Intranasal Ad5 vaccine encoding RBD Altimmune, Inc. SARS-CoV2 IND filed Influenza (NasoVAX), Anthrax
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Adeno5-based Erciyes University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Ad5 S (GREVAX™ platform) Greffex SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical MERS
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Oral Ad5 S Stabilitech Biopharma Ltd SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Zika, VZV, HSV-2 and Norovirus
Non-Replicating Viral Vector adenovirus-based  +  HLA-matched peptides Valo Therapeutics Ltd Pan-Corona Pre-Clinical
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Vaxart SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical InfA, CHIKV, LASV, NORV; EBOV, RVF, HBV, VEE
Non-Replicating Viral Vector MVA expressing structural proteins Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Spain SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Multiple candidates
Non-Replicating Viral Vector parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5)-based vaccine
expressing the spike protein
University of Georgia/University of Iowa SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical MERS
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Recombinant deactivated rabies virus
containing S1
Bharat Biotech/Thomas Jefferson University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical HeV, NiV, EBOV, LASSA, CCHFV, MERS
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Influenza A H1N1 vector National Research Centre, Egypt SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Non-Replicating Viral Vector Newcastle disease virus expressing S Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Recombinant spike with adjuvant Iran SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Multiple candidates
Protein Subunit Recombinant S protein produced in BEVS Tampere University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit RBD protein delivered in mannose-
conjugated chitosan nanoparticle
Ohio State University / Kazakh National Agrarian University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Recombinant spike protein with Essai O/W
1849101 adjuvant
Kazakh National Agrarian University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Peptides Neo7Logic SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Recombinant spike protein with Essai O/W
1849101 adjuvant
Kazakh National Agrarian University, Kazakhstan / National Scientific
Center for Especially Dangerous Infections
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Recombinant S protein Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit RBD protein (baculovirus production) + FAR-
Squalene adjuvant
Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC) / Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia (UPCH)
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit RBD-protein Mynvax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Recombinant S protein Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Peptide + novel adjuvant Bogazici University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit S subunit intranasal liposomal formulation
with GLA/3M052 adjs.
University of Virginia SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit S-Protein (Subunit) + Adjuvant, E coli based
Helix Biogen Consult, Ogbomoso & Trinity Immonoefficient Laboratory,
Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit S,N,M&S1 protein National Research Centre, Egypt SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit University of San Martin and CONICET, Argentina SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit RBD protein fused with Fc of IgG + Adj. Chulalongkorn University/GPO, Thailand SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Capsid-like Particle AdaptVac (PREVENT-nCoV consortium) SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Drosophila S2 insect cell expression system
ExpreS2ion SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Peptide antigens formulated in LNP IMV Inc SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit S protein WRAIR/USAMRIID SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit S protein +Adjuvant National Institute of Infectious Disease, Japan/Shionogi/UMN Pharma SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Influenza
Protein Subunit VLP-recombinant protein + Adjuvant Osaka University/ BIKEN/  National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation,
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit microneedle arrays S1 subunit Univ. of Pittsburgh SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical MERS
Protein Subunit Peptide Vaxil Bio SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Peptide Flow Pharma Inc SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Ebola, Marburg, HIV, Zika, Influenza, HPV therapeutic vaccine, BreastCA
Protein Subunit S protein AJ Vaccines SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Ii-Key peptide Generex/EpiVax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Influenza, HIV, SARS-CoV
Protein Subunit S protein EpiVax/Univ. of Georgia SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical H7N9
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit EPV-CoV-19 EpiVax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit gp-96 backbone Heat Biologics/Univ. Of Miami SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical NSCLC, HIV, malaria, Zika
Protein Subunit Subunit vaccine FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit S1 or RBD protein Baylor College of Medicine SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical SARS
Protein Subunit Subunit protein, plant produced iBio/CC-Pharming SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Recombinant protein, nanoparticles (based
on S-protein and other epitopes)
Saint-Petersburg scientific research institute of vaccines and serums SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit COVID-19 XWG-03
truncated S (spike) proteins
Innovax/Xiamen Univ./GSK SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical HPV
Protein Subunit Adjuvanted microsphere peptide VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Synthetic Long Peptide Vaccine candidate for
S and M proteins
OncoGen SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Oral  E. coli-based protein expression system
of S and N proteins
MIGAL Galilee Research Institute SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Nanoparticle vaccine LakePharma, Inc. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Plant-based subunit
(RBD-Fc + Adjuvant)
Baiya Phytopharm/ Chula Vaccine Research Center SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit OMV-based vaccine Quadram Institute Biosciences SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Flu A, plague
Protein Subunit OMV-based vaccine BiOMViS Srl/Univ. of Trento SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein subunit structurally modified spherical particles of
the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
Lomonosov Moscow State University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical rubella, rotavirus
Protein Subunit Spike-based University of Alberta SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Hepatitis C
Protein Subunit Recombinant S1-Fc fusion protein AnyGo Technology SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Recombinant protein Yisheng Biopharma SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Recombinant S protein in IC-BEVS Vabiotech SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Orally delivered, heat stable subunit Applied Biotechnology Institute, Inc. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Peptides derived from Spike protein Axon Neuroscience SE SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Protein Subunit MOGAM Institute for Biomedical Research, GC Pharma SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit RBD-based Neovii/Tel Aviv University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Outer Membrane Vesicle (OMV)-subunit Intravacc/Epivax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Outer Membrane Vesicle(OMV)-peptide Intravacc/Epivax SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Spike-based (epitope screening) ImmunoPrecise/LiteVax BV SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Protein Subunit Spiked-based Nanografi Nano Technology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Bacteria Vector Oral Salmonella enteritidis (3934Vac) based
protein expression system of RBD
Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC) / Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia (UPCH)
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector Intranasal Newcastle disease virus vector
(rNDV-FARVET) expressing RBD
Farmacológicos Veterinarios SAC (FARVET SAC) / Universidad Peruana
Cayetano Heredia (UPCH)
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector YF17D Vector KU Leuven SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector Measles Vector Cadila Healthcare Limited SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector Measles Vector FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector Measles Virus (S, N targets) DZIF – German Center for Infection Research/CanVirex AG SARS-CoV2 Pre-clinical Zika, H7N9, CHIKV
Replicating Viral Vector Horsepox vector expressing S protein Tonix Pharma/Southern Research SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Smallpox, monkeypox
Replicating Viral Vector Live viral vectored vaccine based on attenuated influenza virus backbone (intranasal) BiOCAD and IEM SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Influenza
Replicating Viral Vector Recombinant vaccine based on Influenza A virus, for the prevention of COVID-19 (intranasal) FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Influenza
Replicating Viral Vector Attenuated Influenza expressing
an antigenic portion of the Spike protein
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz and Instituto Buntantan SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical Influenza
Replicating Viral Vector Influenza vector expressing RBD University of Hong Kong SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector Replicating VSV vector-based DC-targeting University of Manitoba SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector VSV-S University of Western Ontario SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical HIV, MERS
Replicating Viral Vector VSV-S Aurobindo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector VSV vector FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector M2-deficient single replication (M2SR)
influenza vector
UW–Madison/FluGen/Bharat Biotech SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical influenza
Replicating Viral Vector Newcastle disease virus vector (NDV-SARS-
Intravacc/ Wageningen Bioveterinary Research/Utrecht Univ. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
Replicating Viral Vector Avian paramyxovirus vector (APMV) The Lancaster University, UK SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA Providence Therapeutics SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA Cell Tech Pharmed SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA ReNAP Co. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA D614G variant LNP-encapsulated mRNA Globe Biotech Ltd SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA saRNA formulated in a NLC Infectious Disease Research Institute/ Amyris, Inc. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding S Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA Self-amplifying RNA Gennova SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA Selcuk University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA LNP-mRNA Translate Bio/Sanofi Pasteur SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA LNP-mRNA CanSino Biologics/Precision NanoSystems SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA  cocktail encoding
Fudan University/ Shanghai JiaoTong University/RNACure Biopharma SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding RBD Fudan University/ Shanghai JiaoTong University/RNACure Biopharma SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA Replicating Defective SARS-CoV-2 derived
Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Spain SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA LNP-encapsulated mRNA University of Tokyo/ Daiichi-Sankyo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical MERS
RNA Liposome-encapsulated mRNA BIOCAD SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA Several mRNA candidates RNAimmune, Inc. SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA China CDC/Tongji University/Stermina SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA LNP-mRNA Chula Vaccine Research Center/University of Pennsylvania SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA in an intranasal delivery system eTheRNA SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA Greenlight Biosciences SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
RNA mRNA IDIBAPS-Hospital Clinic, Spain SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
T-cell based CD8 T cell peptide targeting (S, M, N) and
(NSPs) SARS-CoV-2 proteins
OSE immunotherapeutics SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP Plant derived VLP Shiraz University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP VLPs produced in BEVS Tampere University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP VLP Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP Virus-like particle-based Dendritic Cell(DC)-
targeting vaccine
University of Manitoba SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP VLP Bezmialem Vakif University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP VLP Middle East Technical University SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP Enveloped Virus-Like Particle (eVLP) VBI Vaccines Inc. SARS-CoV-2,
Pre-Clinical CMV, GBM, Zika
VLP S protein integrated in HIV VLPs IrsiCaixa AIDS Research/IRTA-CReSA/Barcelona Supercomputing
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP VLP + Adjuvant Mahidol University/ The Government Pharmaceutical Organization
(GPO)/Siriraj Hospital
SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP Virus-like particles,  lentivirus and
baculovirus vehicles
Navarrabiomed, Oncoimmunology group SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP Virus-like particle, based on RBD displayed
on virus-like particles
Saiba GmbH SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP ADDomerTM multiepitope display Imophoron Ltd and Bristol University’s Max Planck Centre SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP Unknown Doherty Institute SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical
VLP eVLP ARTES Biotechnology SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical malaria
VLP VLPs peptides/whole virus Univ. of Sao Paulo SARS-CoV2 Pre-Clinical

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