Electron microscopy (EM), Molecular Methods - strategies used in diagnosis of animal infectious disease for animal health

Electron microscopy allows direct visualization of virus particles. Two EM techniques are commonly used in diagnostic laboratories: negative-stain EM and ultrathin-section EM. Negative-stain EM for detection of virus particles in a fluid matrix; ultrathin-section EM for detection of virus particles in fixed tissues or cells. Based on characteristic morphology and size of virus particles observed under EM, viruses can be assigned to appropriate family, e.g., coronavirus-like particles were observed in some feces during initial investigation of diarrheic cases caused by porcine delta-coronavirus. Although EM cannot identify viruses to the species level, identification to the family level can still facilitate next-step testing to achieve definite diagnosis. However, EM generally is less sensitive and needs presence of sufficient amount of virus (about105–6virions per milliliter) in examined specimens. In addition, EM requires expensive equipment and highly skilled microscopist. Picture loading failed.
Figure 4. Transmission Electron Microscopy of hantavirus virions[18].


Genemedi provides diagnostic antibodies and antigens for the in vitro diagnosis of diseases from the Companion Animal, Cat/Feline, Dog/Canine, Rabbit, Bovines/Cattle, Ovines/Sheep, Caprine/Goat, Equine/Horse, Swine/Porcine/Pig, Avian/bird/poultry, Fish and so on.

Animal category

Disease category

Veterinary NCDs (noncommunicable diseases)

  • · Acute inflammation, infections
    · Inflammatory diseases, infections
    · Myocardial injury, heart disease

    · Bacterial infections, sepsis
    · Heart failure, cardiac disease
    · Thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation

Veterinary Infectious Disease

  • · Infectious bursal/Gumboro disease
    · Foot and mouth disease
    · Hemolytic uremic syndrome/E. coli infection

    · Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
    · Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucellosis
    · Monkeypox, cowpox

Technical resource

The Knowledge base of Diagnostics
  • Immuno-Diagnostics Antibodies & Antigens for Veterinary NCDs (noncommunicable diseases) Test
  • What is animal infectious disease?
  • What is lateral flow and how to use it for animal infectious disease?
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA)
  • Immunofluorescence staining (IF)- strategies for animal health
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC), In situ hybridization (ISH), Virus isolation (VI)
  • Electron microscopy (EM), Molecular Methods
  • The strategies used in diagnosis of animal infectious disease for animal health

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