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Abstract - Animal health diagnosis

Animal infectious diseases pose a continuing threat to animal health, food safety, national economy, and the environment. Zoonotic infections, also named as zoonoses, involve veterinary pathogens that are sustained in animal populations but can be transmitted to and cause disease in humans. In the event of veterinary outbreaks, it is essential to make rapid and accurate diagnosis to control and prevent the spread of diseases. Here we discuss different diagnostic methods available to identify animal diseases and zoonotic infections. Efficient diagnosis strategies are critical for controlling and eliminating animal diseases and zoonoses, further protecting and improving animal health, quality, and productivity.

Lateral flow assays - strategies used in diagnosis of animal infectious disease for animal health

Lateral flow test, a simple cellulose-based device developed to detect the presence of a target analyte in a liquid sample [4]. There are two main variations of lateral flow tests: antigen-based test, using monoclonal antibodies to detect the specific viral antigens, another is antibody-based test, using viral antigen protein to measure the specific antibody level in a sample. For antigen-based test, test strips are coated with antibodies that bind to a viral protein and if the animal’s sample contains such proteins, they will bind to the antibodies, to form a colored indicator on the strip. Samples can be feces, eye mucus, whole blood, serum or plasma. For antibody-based test, test strips are coated with viral antigens that bind to antibodies and if the animal blood sample contains such antibodies, they will bind to the viral antigens, to form a colored indicator on the strip. Samples can be whole blood, serum or plasma [5].

Colloidal gold nanoparticles are the most widely adopted material to induce a color change when it comes in contact with the analyte. Based on the specific immune response of antigen and antibody, colloidal gold particles were used as one of the tracer markers. Driven by solvent chromatography, the markers had an immune response on the C/T line, and the detection results could be obtained according to the color of the T line. GICA samples can be whole blood, serum or plasma, and studies have shown that the colloidal gold reagent has a high consistency in detecting whole blood, plasma or serum [6]. The test results could be provided between 10-30 mins from sample collection.

Due to the low sensitivity of this test, it would effectively work only on symptomatic individuals and these tests could be less reliable in comparison with RT-PCR tests. However, it could be quickly performed at the point-of-care, or in community settings without the need for expensive equipment. An overview of the process for lateral flow assay is presented in Figure 1.

antigen-based Lateral flow test Picture loading failed.

antibody-based Lateral flow test Picture loading failed.

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Figure 1.  An overview on lateral flow assay for a serological test

Summary

In the recent years, importance of animal disease and their public health effects have been well recognized worldwide. Animal disease, more significantly, zoonotic disease cause human mortality and morbidity, and also affect livestock’s production, decrease availability of food and create barriers for international trade. Rapid diagnosis is critical for the implementation of efficient control strategies against animal disease and zoonotic disease. Understanding animal disease infection dynamics and collecting appropriate specimens at the appropriate time window are also important to obtain reliable diagnostic results. A number of virological and serological methods have been developed and used for animal disease diagnostic testing. RT-PCR is the method of common choice for the detection of animal disease; IHC combined with hematoxylin and eosin staining has also been commonly used to examine histopathological lesions caused by animal disease. Success rate of virus isolation in cell cultures has been low. Serological assays can provide information about previous exposure to animal disease and also determine antibody responses to infection or vaccination when vaccines are available. Rolling out serological test would be an effective strategy to determine the percentage of the population that is immune and have shown no symptoms for the animal disease. Thereby, determining the exact magnitude of the outbreak and enabling governments to assess containment strategies to slow down the spread. The major drawbacks with these immunoassays are their accuracy and sensitivity of the test results. Therefore, there needs to be extensive research and testing done to develop new cost-effective methods to quickly and easily determine animal disease infection. Whereas, any such emerging approach must be carefully evaluated for its efficiency, accuracy, and linear range. The FDA approval and evaluation of each diagnostic technique is necessary before it can be used in practice.

Full product list: Avian, Fish, Pet, Pig, Ruminants

Validated animal health diagnostic antibodies pairs and antigens for animal infectious diseases diagnostic testing in ELISA, Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and other immunoassays.

GeneMedi offers paired antibodies and antigens for Animal Health Diagnostic testing including most of the infectious disease in different animals:Avian(birds), fish, pets(cat, dog, rabbit), pig, ruminants(cow, goat, sheep, ox, cattle, bull) and so on(please see below).

All our animal health diagnostic antibodies and antigens for antimals infectious diseases test are suitable for in functional sandiwich ELISA, and other immunoassays in diagnostics. The antibodies can act as a capture antibody and detection antibody. The antigens can be used for antibodies rapid test of infectious disease.

Avian (Bird) Fish Pet Pig Ruminants



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