Immunohistochemistry (IHC), In situ hybridization (ISH), Virus isolation (VI) - strategies used in diagnosis of animal infectious disease for animal health

Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

Immunohistochemistry is to detect viral antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues using virus-specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies followed by an enzyme-linked secondary antibody and chemical substrate; IHC can be visualized under alight microscope.

In situ hybridization (ISH)

In situ hybridization (ISH) is to detect viral nucleic acid present in fixed tissues using a labeled complementary DNA, RNA or modified nucleic acid strand. Different with PCR approach where viral nucleic acid in a sample is amplified before detection, ISH detects viral nucleic acid that is not going through an amplification process.

Virus isolation (VI)

Obtaining the virus isolate that can efficiently grow in cell culture is critical for pathogenesis study, development of diagnostic assays, and vaccine development. However, viral culture results do not yield timely results to inform clinical management. Shell-vial tissue culture results may take 1-3 days, while traditional tissue-cell viral culture results may take 3-10 days. Due to the long incubation time, high technical requirements, and must be carried out in a level III safe biological laboratory, it is not suitable for rapid virus diagnosis during the epidemic period [17].


Genemedi provides diagnostic antibodies and antigens for the in vitro diagnosis of diseases from the Companion Animal, Cat/Feline, Dog/Canine, Rabbit, Bovines/Cattle, Ovines/Sheep, Caprine/Goat, Equine/Horse, Swine/Porcine/Pig, Avian/bird/poultry, Fish and so on.

Animal category

Disease category

Veterinary NCDs (noncommunicable diseases)

  • · Acute inflammation, infections
    · Inflammatory diseases, infections
    · Myocardial injury, heart disease

    · Bacterial infections, sepsis
    · Heart failure, cardiac disease
    · Thrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation

Veterinary Infectious Disease

  • · Infectious bursal/Gumboro disease
    · Foot and mouth disease
    · Hemolytic uremic syndrome/E. coli infection

    · Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
    · Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucellosis
    · Monkeypox, cowpox

Technical resource

The Knowledge base of Diagnostics
  • Immuno-Diagnostics Antibodies & Antigens for Veterinary NCDs (noncommunicable diseases) Test
  • What is animal infectious disease?
  • What is lateral flow and how to use it for animal infectious disease?
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA)
  • Immunofluorescence staining (IF)- strategies for animal health
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC), In situ hybridization (ISH), Virus isolation (VI)
  • Electron microscopy (EM), Molecular Methods
  • The strategies used in diagnosis of animal infectious disease for animal health

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