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Abstract - Animal health diagnosis

Animal infectious diseases pose a continuing threat to animal health, food safety, national economy, and the environment. Zoonotic infections, also named as zoonoses, involve veterinary pathogens that are sustained in animal populations but can be transmitted to and cause disease in humans. In the event of veterinary outbreaks, it is essential to make rapid and accurate diagnosis to control and prevent the spread of diseases. Here we discuss different diagnostic methods available to identify animal diseases and zoonotic infections. Efficient diagnosis strategies are critical for controlling and eliminating animal diseases and zoonoses, further protecting and improving animal health, quality, and productivity.

Introduction of animal infectious disease

Animal diseases are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses. The emergence of animal disease infections and their worldwide distribution are predisposed by climate change, intense livestock production, illegal movements of animals and humans, regional civil wars and increasing trade.

The spread of infectious diseases has increased the risk of catastrophic animal losses. Some animal diseases can transmit from animals to humans and vice versa, termed zoonoses. Zoonoses encompass some of the most ancient communicable diseases, such as rabies and plague, as well as newly recognized emerging infections, such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Routes of transmission of zoonosis to humans through direct contact or through food, water, or the environment, contributing to 61% of infectious organisms affecting humans [1, 2].

Zoonosis can be caused by veterinary pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, parasites, viruses, and prions. The disease symptoms in humans range from mild and self-limiting to fatal [3]. Table 1 highlights some animal infectious diseases and their veterinary pathogens, in Table 2 we highlight some selected important zoonotic diseases and their veterinary pathogens

Table 1. Some animal infectious diseases and their pathogens.
Avian Avian influenzaavian influenza virusMouse anti-avian influenza virus monoclonal antibody
Avian mycoplasmosisavian Mycoplasma gallisepticumMouse anti-avian Mycoplasma gallisepticum monoclonal antibody
Newcastle diseaseNewcastle disease virusMouse anti-Newcastle disease virus monoclonal antibody
Avian infectious bronchitisAvian infectious bronchitis virusMouse anti-Avian infectious bronchitis virus monoclonal antibody
Fever, coughs, sore throats, diarrhea, and pink eye.adenovirusMouse Anti- adenovirus monoclonal antibodies
Infectious bursal/Gumboro diseaseInfectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) virushttps://www.genemedi.net/i/GMP-AD-Fish-1Ab
Fish Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN)Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN)Mouse anti-Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) monoclonal Antibody
Infectious Salmon Anaemia(ISA)Infectious Salmon Anaemia(ISA)Mouse Anti-Infectious Salmon Anaemia(ISA) Monoclonal antibodies
Canine Canine distemper/ footpad diseaseCanine distemper virus (CDV)Mouse anti-Canine distemper virus (CDV) monoclonal antibodies
hemorrhagic enteritisCanine parvovirus (CPV)Mouse anti-Canine parvovirus (CPV) monoclonal antibodies
hepatitis,infectious tracheobronchitis, canine cough.Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2,CAV-Ⅱ)Mouse anti-Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2,CAV-Ⅱ) monoclonal antibodies
rabiesrabies virus (RV)Mouse anti-rabies virus (RV)monoclonal antibodies
Cat/Feline Feline panleukopenia (FP)Cat (feline) parvovirusMouse anti-Cat (feline) parvovirus monoclonal antibodies
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)Cat Serum amyloid A (SAA)Mouse anti-cat Serum amyloid A (SAA) monoclonal antibodies
Feline LeukemiaFeline Leukemia virus (FeLV)Mouse anti-Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV) monoclonal antibodies
Rabbit Rabbit Hemorrhagic FeverRabbit Hemorrhagic Fever (RHF)Mouse Anti-Rabbit Hemorrhagic Fever (RHF) Monoclonal Antibody
Pig Encephalitis lethargica, sleeping sickness, sleepy sicknessEpidemic EncephalitisMouse anti-Epidemic Encephalitis monoclonal antibodies
speechless, motionlessporcine blue ear virusMouse anti-porcine blue ear virus monoclonal antibodies
post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)porcine parvovirusMouse anti-porcine parvovirus monoclonal antibodies
Foot and mouth diseasefoot and mouth disease (FMD virus, type O, Asian)Mouse anti-foot and mouth disease (FMD virus, type O, Asian) monoclonal antibodies
Ruminants Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE)Sheep Caprine arthritis-encephalitis(CAE), Maedi-visna VirusMouse anti-Sheep Caprine arthritis-encephalitis(CAE), Maedi-visna Virus monoclonal Antibody
respiratory disease, abortion, neurologic diseaseequine herpes virus (EHV)Mouse anti-equine herpes virus (EHV) monoclonal antibody
Equine infectious anemia (EIA)Equine infectious anemia (EIA)Mouse anti-Equine infectious anemia (EIA) monoclonal antibody
Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, BrucellosisBrucella abortus, Brucella melitensis (Brucellosis)Mouse anti-Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis (Brucellosis) monoclonal antibody
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)/prionMouse anti-Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) monoclonal antibody
Table 2. Selected important zoonotic diseases and their veterinary pathogens.
AvianAvian influenzaAvian influenza virusMouse anti-avian influenza virus monoclonal antibody
CanineRabiesRabies virus (RV)Mouse anti-rabies virus (RV)monoclonal antibodies
RuminantsBrucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, BrucellosisBrucella abortus, Brucella melitensis (Brucellosis)Mouse anti-Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis (Brucellosis) monoclonal antibody
RuminantsBovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)/prionMouse anti-Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) monoclonal antibody
Unknown (possibly bats)Ebola Hemorrhagic FeverEbola
Rodents, cattleMonkeypox, cowpoxOrthopoxviruses
RodentsHantavirus pulmonary
syndrome, hemorrhagic
fever with renal syndrome,
hantaviral illness
Hantaviruses, Bunyavirus
RodentsLymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Bolivian (Machupo), Brazilian (Sabia), Argentine (Junin), African (Lassa) hemorrhagic feversArenaviruses
RodentsPlagueYersinia pestis
LivestockQ feverCoxiella burnettii
Birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibiansSalmonellosisSalmonella spp. (multiple serovars)
Wild and domestic animalsLeptospirosisLeptospira interrogans (multiple serovars)
Rabbits, hares, voles, muskrat, beaver, rodentsTularemiaFrancisella tularensis (var tularensis and palaeartica)
Livestock, wild ruminantsHemolytic uremic syndrome/E. coli infectionEscherichia coli O157:H7
BirdsPsittacosisChlamydophila psittaci
EquineGlandersBurkholderia mallei
CatsCat scratch diseaseBartonella, henselae/quintana
LivestockAnthraxBacillus anthracis
Wild and domestic animalsCryptosporidiosisCryptosporidium parvum
Wild and domestic animalsGiardiasisGiardia lambia
FelidsToxoplasmosisToxoplasma gondii
Dogs, cats, raccoonsLarval migransToxocara canis, T. cati, Baylisascaris procyonis
Dogs, cats, raccoonsCutaneous larval migransAncylostoma spp., Strongyloides spp.
Swine, rodents, wild carnivoresTrichinosisTrichinella spp.
Mammals, some birdsDermatophytosis (ringworm)Microsporum canis, Trichophyton

Summary

In the recent years, importance of animal disease and their public health effects have been well recognized worldwide. Animal disease, more significantly, zoonotic disease cause human mortality and morbidity, and also affect livestock’s production, decrease availability of food and create barriers for international trade. Rapid diagnosis is critical for the implementation of efficient control strategies against animal disease and zoonotic disease. Understanding animal disease infection dynamics and collecting appropriate specimens at the appropriate time window are also important to obtain reliable diagnostic results. A number of virological and serological methods have been developed and used for animal disease diagnostic testing. RT-PCR is the method of common choice for the detection of animal disease; IHC combined with hematoxylin and eosin staining has also been commonly used to examine histopathological lesions caused by animal disease. Success rate of virus isolation in cell cultures has been low. Serological assays can provide information about previous exposure to animal disease and also determine antibody responses to infection or vaccination when vaccines are available. Rolling out serological test would be an effective strategy to determine the percentage of the population that is immune and have shown no symptoms for the animal disease. Thereby, determining the exact magnitude of the outbreak and enabling governments to assess containment strategies to slow down the spread. The major drawbacks with these immunoassays are their accuracy and sensitivity of the test results. Therefore, there needs to be extensive research and testing done to develop new cost-effective methods to quickly and easily determine animal disease infection. Whereas, any such emerging approach must be carefully evaluated for its efficiency, accuracy, and linear range. The FDA approval and evaluation of each diagnostic technique is necessary before it can be used in practice.

Full product list: Avian, Fish, Pet, Pig, Ruminants

Validated animal health diagnostic antibodies pairs and antigens for animal infectious diseases diagnostic testing in ELISA, Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and other immunoassays.

GeneMedi offers paired antibodies and antigens for Animal Health Diagnostic testing including most of the infectious disease in different animals:Avian(birds), fish, pets(cat, dog, rabbit), pig, ruminants(cow, goat, sheep, ox, cattle, bull) and so on(please see below).

All our animal health diagnostic antibodies and antigens for antimals infectious diseases test are suitable for in functional sandiwich ELISA, and other immunoassays in diagnostics. The antibodies can act as a capture antibody and detection antibody. The antigens can be used for antibodies rapid test of infectious disease.

Avian (Bird) Fish Pet Pig Ruminants



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