Introduction of animal infectious disease
Abstract - Animal health diagnosis
Animal infectious diseases pose a continuing threat to animal health, food safety, national economy, and the environment. Zoonotic infections, also named as zoonoses, involve veterinary pathogens that are sustained in animal populations but can be transmitted to and cause disease in humans. In the event of veterinary outbreaks, it is essential to make rapid and accurate diagnosis to control and prevent the spread of diseases. Here we discuss different diagnostic methods available to identify animal diseases and zoonotic infections. Efficient diagnosis strategies are critical for controlling and eliminating animal diseases and zoonoses, further protecting and improving animal health, quality, and productivity.
Introduction of animal infectious disease
Animal diseases are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses. The emergence of animal disease infections and their worldwide distribution are predisposed by climate change, intense livestock production, illegal movements of animals and humans, regional civil wars and increasing trade.
The spread of infectious diseases has increased the risk of catastrophic animal losses. Some animal diseases can transmit from animals to humans and vice versa, termed zoonoses. Zoonoses encompass some of the most ancient communicable diseases, such as rabies and plague, as well as newly recognized emerging infections, such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Routes of transmission of zoonosis to humans through direct contact or through food, water, or the environment, contributing to 61% of infectious organisms affecting humans [1, 2].
Zoonosis can be caused by veterinary pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria, parasites, viruses, and prions. The disease symptoms in humans range from mild and self-limiting to fatal . Table 1 highlights some animal infectious diseases and their veterinary pathogens, in Table 2 we highlight some selected important zoonotic diseases and their veterinary pathogens
|Avian||Avian influenza||avian influenza virus||Mouse anti-avian influenza virus monoclonal antibody|
|Avian mycoplasmosis||avian Mycoplasma gallisepticum||Mouse anti-avian Mycoplasma gallisepticum monoclonal antibody|
|Newcastle disease||Newcastle disease virus||Mouse anti-Newcastle disease virus monoclonal antibody|
|Avian infectious bronchitis||Avian infectious bronchitis virus||Mouse anti-Avian infectious bronchitis virus monoclonal antibody|
|Fever, coughs, sore throats, diarrhea, and pink eye.||adenovirus||Mouse Anti- adenovirus monoclonal antibodies|
|Infectious bursal/Gumboro disease||Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) virus||https://www.genemedi.net/i/GMP-AD-Fish-1Ab|
|Fish||Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN)||Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN)||Mouse anti-Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) monoclonal Antibody|
|Infectious Salmon Anaemia(ISA)||Infectious Salmon Anaemia(ISA)||Mouse Anti-Infectious Salmon Anaemia(ISA) Monoclonal antibodies|
|Canine||Canine distemper/ footpad disease||Canine distemper virus (CDV)||Mouse anti-Canine distemper virus (CDV) monoclonal antibodies|
|hemorrhagic enteritis||Canine parvovirus (CPV)||Mouse anti-Canine parvovirus (CPV) monoclonal antibodies|
|hepatitis,infectious tracheobronchitis, canine cough.||Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2，CAV-Ⅱ)||Mouse anti-Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2，CAV-Ⅱ) monoclonal antibodies|
|rabies||rabies virus (RV)||Mouse anti-rabies virus (RV)monoclonal antibodies|
|Cat/Feline||Feline panleukopenia (FP)||Cat (feline) parvovirus||Mouse anti-Cat (feline) parvovirus monoclonal antibodies|
|High-density lipoprotein (HDL)||Cat Serum amyloid A (SAA)||Mouse anti-cat Serum amyloid A (SAA) monoclonal antibodies|
|Feline Leukemia||Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV)||Mouse anti-Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV) monoclonal antibodies|
|Rabbit||Rabbit Hemorrhagic Fever||Rabbit Hemorrhagic Fever (RHF)||Mouse Anti-Rabbit Hemorrhagic Fever (RHF) Monoclonal Antibody|
|Pig||Encephalitis lethargica, sleeping sickness, sleepy sickness||Epidemic Encephalitis||Mouse anti-Epidemic Encephalitis monoclonal antibodies|
|speechless, motionless||porcine blue ear virus||Mouse anti-porcine blue ear virus monoclonal antibodies|
|post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)||porcine parvovirus||Mouse anti-porcine parvovirus monoclonal antibodies|
|Foot and mouth disease||foot and mouth disease (FMD virus, type O, Asian)||Mouse anti-foot and mouth disease (FMD virus, type O, Asian) monoclonal antibodies|
|Ruminants||Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE)||Sheep Caprine arthritis-encephalitis(CAE), Maedi-visna Virus||Mouse anti-Sheep Caprine arthritis-encephalitis(CAE), Maedi-visna Virus monoclonal Antibody|
|respiratory disease, abortion, neurologic disease||equine herpes virus (EHV)||Mouse anti-equine herpes virus (EHV) monoclonal antibody|
|Equine infectious anemia (EIA)||Equine infectious anemia (EIA)||Mouse anti-Equine infectious anemia (EIA) monoclonal antibody|
|Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucellosis||Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis (Brucellosis)||Mouse anti-Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis (Brucellosis) monoclonal antibody|
|Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)||Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)/prion||Mouse anti-Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) monoclonal antibody|
|Avian||Avian influenza||Avian influenza virus||Mouse anti-avian influenza virus monoclonal antibody|
|Canine||Rabies||Rabies virus (RV)||Mouse anti-rabies virus (RV)monoclonal antibodies|
|Ruminants||Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucellosis||Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis (Brucellosis)||Mouse anti-Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis (Brucellosis) monoclonal antibody|
|Ruminants||Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)||Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)/prion||Mouse anti-Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) monoclonal antibody|
|Unknown (possibly bats)||Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever||Ebola|
|Rodents, cattle||Monkeypox, cowpox||Orthopoxviruses|
fever with renal syndrome,
|Rodents||Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Bolivian (Machupo), Brazilian (Sabia), Argentine (Junin), African (Lassa) hemorrhagic fevers||Arenaviruses|
|Livestock||Q fever||Coxiella burnettii|
|Birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians||Salmonellosis||Salmonella spp. (multiple serovars)|
|Wild and domestic animals||Leptospirosis||Leptospira interrogans (multiple serovars)|
|Rabbits, hares, voles, muskrat, beaver, rodents||Tularemia||Francisella tularensis (var tularensis and palaeartica)|
|Livestock, wild ruminants||Hemolytic uremic syndrome/E. coli infection||Escherichia coli O157:H7|
|Cats||Cat scratch disease||Bartonella, henselae/quintana|
|Wild and domestic animals||Cryptosporidiosis||Cryptosporidium parvum|
|Wild and domestic animals||Giardiasis||Giardia lambia|
|Dogs, cats, raccoons||Larval migrans||Toxocara canis, T. cati, Baylisascaris procyonis|
|Dogs, cats, raccoons||Cutaneous larval migrans||Ancylostoma spp., Strongyloides spp.|
|Swine, rodents, wild carnivores||Trichinosis||Trichinella spp.|
|Mammals, some birds||Dermatophytosis (ringworm)||Microsporum canis, Trichophyton|
In the recent years, importance of animal disease and their public health effects have been well recognized worldwide. Animal disease, more significantly, zoonotic disease cause human mortality and morbidity, and also affect livestock’s production, decrease availability of food and create barriers for international trade. Rapid diagnosis is critical for the implementation of efficient control strategies against animal disease and zoonotic disease. Understanding animal disease infection dynamics and collecting appropriate specimens at the appropriate time window are also important to obtain reliable diagnostic results. A number of virological and serological methods have been developed and used for animal disease diagnostic testing. RT-PCR is the method of common choice for the detection of animal disease; IHC combined with hematoxylin and eosin staining has also been commonly used to examine histopathological lesions caused by animal disease. Success rate of virus isolation in cell cultures has been low. Serological assays can provide information about previous exposure to animal disease and also determine antibody responses to infection or vaccination when vaccines are available. Rolling out serological test would be an effective strategy to determine the percentage of the population that is immune and have shown no symptoms for the animal disease. Thereby, determining the exact magnitude of the outbreak and enabling governments to assess containment strategies to slow down the spread. The major drawbacks with these immunoassays are their accuracy and sensitivity of the test results. Therefore, there needs to be extensive research and testing done to develop new cost-effective methods to quickly and easily determine animal disease infection. Whereas, any such emerging approach must be carefully evaluated for its efficiency, accuracy, and linear range. The FDA approval and evaluation of each diagnostic technique is necessary before it can be used in practice.
Full product list: Avian, Fish, Pet, Pig, Ruminants
Validated animal health diagnostic antibodies pairs and antigens for animal infectious diseases diagnostic testing in ELISA, Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) and other immunoassays.
GeneMedi offers paired antibodies and antigens for Animal Health Diagnostic testing including most of the infectious disease in different animals:Avian(birds), fish, pets(cat, dog, rabbit), pig, ruminants(cow, goat, sheep, ox, cattle, bull) and so on(please see below).
All our animal health diagnostic antibodies and antigens for antimals infectious diseases test are suitable for in functional sandiwich ELISA, and other immunoassays in diagnostics. The antibodies can act as a capture antibody and detection antibody. The antigens can be used for antibodies rapid test of infectious disease.
Avian (Bird) Fish Pet Pig Ruminants
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