Comparison among several kinds of novel vaccinesCOVID-19 vaccine development protocol:
PSV Based Neutralization Assay
Comparison among several kinds of novel vaccines
Different kinds of vaccines have their specific advantages and disadvantages (Table 13), and people should select the most suitable vaccines according to their demands. Although nucleic acid-based vaccines need short-term and little cost, DNA-based vaccines provoke mild immune responses, and no available mRNA vaccines have been applied into clinics, which really restrict the application of nucleic acid-based vaccines. Viral vector-based vaccines, especially adenoviral vector-based vaccines, stimulate relatively stronger immune responses, showing unique superiority in vaccine development. However, the COVID-19 is raging across the world now, which makes the vaccines for COVID-19 urgently demanded. At this fierce moment, time is really precious for life, which might give a chance for mRNA vaccine. At the same time, as a kind of effective and efficacious vaccines, viral vector-based vaccines are also promising and with great prospect for COVID-19 vaccine development.
|Viral vector-based vaccines||DNA vaccine||RNA vaccine|
|Immune responses||Induce humoral and cellular immunity||Induce humoral and cellular immunity||Induce humoral and cellular immunity|
|Immunogenicity||Varies with different vectors||Weak||Weak|
①highly efficient in gene transduction;
② mediate specific gene delivery to target cells;
③induce of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses;
④ better efficacy and safety;
⑤ just need low administration dose;
⑥ easy to be applied into large-scale manufacturing;
⑦ possessing widespread potential target diseases, ranging from infectious diseases to cancers
|① Induction of humoral immune responses and cell immune responses;
② Avoid the anti-vector immunity;
③ Easy to produce in a large scale
|① Induction of humoral immune responses and cell immune responses; |
② Provoke stronger immunity than DNA vaccines;
③ Avoid the anti-vector immunity;
④ Mediate transient expression of antigen;
⑤ No integration into host genome;
⑥ Easy to produce in a large scale
Pre-existing immunity and neutralizing antibodies (AAV and AdV); tumorigenicity (LV)
|Induce weak immunity||Induce weak immunity|
|Suitable time||AAV and LV: long-term stable expression; |
|Delivery system||Viral vector||Naked nucleic acids, formulation with liposomes, lipoplexes, polyplexes, particulate carrier-mediated, electroporation, and gene gun|
Naked nucleic acids, formulation with liposomes, lipoplexes, polyplexes, particulate carrier-mediated, electroporation, and gene gun
|Optimization||AAV: rational design of capsid;
AdV: modify fiber protein to alter tissue tropism;
LV: develop integration-free vector
① Utilizing stronger promoters;
② Optimize the delivery route;
③ Optimization of multiple antigen sequences;
④ Adjuvants are used to prevent tolerance induction and facilitate the innate immune signals;
⑤ circumvent potential inhibitory effects of the vector
|① Modify or optimize the vaccine backbone;|
② Optimize the delivery systems and route of administration;
③ supplementation with small immunomodulatory molecules to improve the immune responses
|Clinical usage||Yes||Not yet||Not yet|
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Collection of COVID-19 landscape knowledge base
COVID-19 landscape Knowledge Base
An Insight of comparison between COVID-19 (2019-nCoV disease) and SARS in pathology and pathogenesis
Landscape Coronavirus Disease 2019 test (COVID-19 test) in vitro -- A comparison of PCR vs Immunoassay vs Crispr-Based test